Liquefied natural gas, or as it is commonly called in the energy industry – LNG, is an ordinary natural gas cooled to –162 ° C (the so-called liquefaction temperature) for storage and transportation in liquid form.
Crude oil and natural gas are fossil fuels known as “hydrocarbons” because they contain chemical combinations of carbon and hydrogen atoms. The chemical composition of natural gas depends on the place of gas production and its processing. Liquefied natural gas is a mixture of methane, ethane, propane and butane with a small amount of heavier hydrocarbons and some impurities, in particular, nitrogen and complex compounds of sulfur, water, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide.
Benefits of liquefied natural gas
1. In the process of liquefaction gas density is increased by hundreds of times, which increases the efficiency and convenience of storage, as well as transportation and consumption of energy carrier.
2. Liquefied natural gas is a non-toxic cryogenic liquid, which is stored in a heat-insulated container at a temperature of –162 ° С. Large volumes of LNG can be stored in special ground tanks at atmospheric pressure.
3. There is a possibility of intercontinental transportation of LNG by special gas tankers, as well as rail and road transport in tanks.
4. Liquefied natural gas enables gasification of facilities remote from main pipelines for long distances by creating a reserve of LNG directly near the consumer, avoiding the construction of expensive pipeline systems.